History of Rodeo

Pecos Texas, World First Rodeo

Williamson County Wildlife Removal background is interesting and full of small contests that pitted cowboy crews against each other in various ways.
The start of those competitions started in the 1700’s with the Spaniards and their ranch hands called vaqueros. These ranches were spread out over what’s currently, the American southwest, when Spain possessed the land. There were several events where the ranch hands could compete. The early rodeos had events such as horse breaking, which could become very dangerous if one wasn’t careful, herding, which turned into a larger competition since the ways of the cowboy became more popular, and branding the critters. In the 1800’s, cattle drives were a massive part of cowboy life, with paths like the Chism, the Goodnight-Loving, and the Santa Fe were ways to get the cows from the southwestern areas of the United States into the eastern areas of america. At the end of the paths, the cowboys who had to dismiss the stress of the drive frequently held competitions between crews to find out who was the best. This would eventually develop into an entertainment form for people of the frontier cities, such as Prescott, Arizona or Cheyenne, Wyoming. They used lots of the events mentioned previously, which gave birth to the modern rodeos of now.
The contemporary rodeo is governed by the rules and regulations put forth by IGRA. Its rule book can be found on the internet and covers every aspect of rodeo life from institution requirements to professional behaviour in the stadium and other areas where the rodeo is being held. One of the chief issues with the animals is the way the rodeo hands get the animals to buck so much. This happens because the animals are made to put on a flank strap that binds the testicles. The 8 second principle was established for the protection of the animals, largely because the creature gets exhausted and the adrenaline stops flowing just as much. Additionally, it can help keep the creature wild and unbroken, so that it may perform in different rodeos.
The security of the cowboy is almost secondary to the protection of the animals. Horrible injuries and death occur annually from trampling or by being thrown to the fence that divides the audience from the arena. If that is the game for you, ensure you have the correct training and some type of protection to your upper chest and abdominal area. This is the area where accidents occur the most.

What is a Hot Jupiter

Astronomy, Space, Moon, Galaxy, Planet

Hot Jupiter exoplanets are enormous gas-giant worlds akin to our own Solar System’s Jupiter. Unlike our Jupiter, however, hot Jupiters don’t live in the cooler outer regions of the planetary systems, but rather hug their searing-hot, fiery, glaring parent celebrities quickly and shut in”roasting” orbits. In September 2014, a group of planet-hunting astronomers announced their discovery of yet another bizarre alien planetary system, where a fascinating duo of Jupiter-sized exoplanets are observed–every orbiting a distinct leading twin of a binary-star system.

But many stars are members of binary systems–twin celebrities which were born from the exact natal cloud of dust and gas. Now, for the first time, two twin stars writing a binary system are seen to sponsor a sexy Jupiter exoplanet.

The bizarre discoveries, circling the leading sisters WASP-94A and WASP-94B, were created by a group of British, Belgian, and Swiss astronomers.

A new survey, known as the WASP-South survey, led by astronomers from Keele University in Staffordshire, UK, found little dips in the light emanating from WASP-94A, suggesting a planet like Jupiter was passing before (transiting) the fiery, brilliant surface of its own parent-star. Dr. Marion Neveu-VanMalle of Geneva University in Switzerland, who composed the statement paper, commented at a September 30, 2014 University of Keele Press Release that”We noticed that another star by accident, and found a world around that one too!”

Hot Jupiters hug their leading parents carefully, circling them in hellish orbits–using a”year” lasting just a couple of days. But, hot Jupiters are in fact rare denizens of this planetary zoo–thus making it extremely improbable that two hot Jupiters would be seen by chance, inhabiting the identical stellar system. Maybe WASP-94 is unique, and just happens to have the correct conditions for giving birth to those rare sexy Jupiter exoplanets? If this turns out to be true, WASP-94 might be a crucial method for understanding why hot Jupiters somehow can circle their leading parents in such rapid, close, and”roasting” orbits.

The existence of those enormous, gaseous Jupiter-like exoplanets, orbiting so close to their stars, has introduced a longstanding mystery. This is because gas-giant planets cannot be born hugging their parent-stars–it is much too hot there for them to form.

The very first exoplanet to be found orbiting a main-sequence (hydrogen burning) Sun-like celebrity proved to be a hot Jupiter. This discovery shocked planet-hunting astronomers who didn’t feel that such close-in, giant, gaseous worlds could exist. This puzzle has plagued with the planetary science community for the last twenty years.

An exoplanet is an alien world that doesn’t orbit our Solar System’s Sun, but rather circles a remote, distinct star, stellar remnant, or brown dwarf (failed star). As of September 29, 2014, over 1800 exoplanets have been discovered –with 1822 planets residing in 1137 planetary systems, including 467 multiple planetary systems. Moreover, you will find free-floating”orphan” planets which aren’t gravitationally bound to any star in any way, but float through interstellar space, tragically bereft of their companionship of a leading parent or planetary siblings of their own. After, these gloomy planetary”orphans” were part of a system, but they were probably cruelly evicted from the gravitational bullying of sister planets which hurled them in the cold, dark space between stars.

The highly effective Kepler Space Telescope has spotted a few thousand potential exoplanets, of which about 11 percent might turn out to be false-positives. Planetary scientists estimate there are likely, in the very least, 1 planet on average per celebrity dwelling within our starlit, spiral Milky Way Galaxy. Maybe 1 in 5 stars like our own Sun game an”Earth-sized” world from the habitable zone. The habitable zone surrounding a celebrity is that comfy”Goldilocks” area where the temperatures are”just right” for water to exist in its own life-sustaining liquid stage. Where liquid water exists, life as we understand it can also possibly exist.

Despite the fact that the discovery of numerous alien worlds is becoming almost commonplace–“business as usual” for planet-hunting astronomers–that hasn’t always been the case. In actuality, the search for planets beyond our Solar System historically been shown to be a rather frustrating, difficult, and long pursuit. Finally, back in 1992, the very first batch of eccentric exoplanets were successfully seen in orbit around a compact, small, exceptionally spinning stellar relic known as a pulsar. Dr. Alexander Wolszczan of Pennsylvania State University, after carefully analyzing radio emissions coming from a compact millisecond pulsar, called PSR B1257+12, decided that it had been circled by several very bizarre planets. A pulsar is a little oddball of about 12 miles, therefore, in diameter. It’s in fact the collapsed core of what was once a enormous main-sequence star that, after having burnt its mandatory supply of hydrogen gas, blew itself to smithereens from the fiery anger of a supernova burst.

The historical discovery was made by Dr. Michel Mayor and Dr. Didier Queloz of Switzerland’s Geneva Observatory.

This hot-Jupiter world, that clung closely to its searing-hot parent star, was the first of its baffling type to bewilder astronomers. However, the present theories of planet formation with that era indicated that giant Jupiter-like planets could only be born at substantially greater distances from their stars.

51 Peg b proved to be just the tip of the iceberg–it was the first discovery of an entirely new and unforeseen category of exoplanets. Ever since the discovery of 51 Peg b twenty years back, several other hot Jupiters have been discovered by planet-hunting astronomers looking for distant worlds outside our own Sun’s family.

New theories were invented to describe hot Jupiters. Some astronomers thought that these”roasters” were basically huge molten stones; while others suggested they were gas-giant planets which were actually born 100 times further away from their stars–and were taken back towards their parent-star as a consequence of near-collisions with other sister planets, or maybe even a companion star of their very own stellar parent.

One theory suggests that hot Jupiters are born at a distance like Jupiter’s average distance from our Sun, then gradually eliminate energy as a consequence of interactions with the disc of dust, Bat Poop and gas (protoplanetary accretion disc ) where they had formed. The newborn giant world, therefore, spirals to the warm inner areas of its own planetary system from its distant birthplace.

Hot Jupiters could be tragedies in the making, doomed to crash into a fiery death within the raging furnaces of the seething-hot parent-stars. Until that time, but these unfortunate”roasters” orbit their stars quickly and close, in their hell-like orbits.

Hot Jupiter planets have to be born much further out in their systems, where the temperatures are sufficiently cold for ices to freeze from the protoplanetary disc swirling around the young star–thus forming a brand new baby world. Something must then happen that moves the planet to a close-in,”roasting” orbit, and one possible mechanism is an interaction with another sister planet or star. Spotting sexy Jupiter planets circling about two sister celebrities writing a binary pair may allow astronomers to examine the still-mysterious procedures that move the hot Jupiters inward.

The 2 stars are rather bright, which makes it effortless to study their planets, so WASP-94 could be used to detect the compositions of the atmospheres of the exoplanets.”

The WASP poll is the most prosperous search for sexy Jupiter exoplanets which transit–or float in front of–the glaring face of the parent-stars. The WASP-South survey tool searches the skies every clear night, scanning literally thousands and thousands of sparkling stars for transits.

Facts about Neptune

Neptune, Planet, Solar System, Space


It’s positioned between Uranus and Pluto, and is sometimes referred to as the Blue Giant. The planet is almost 49,500 km in diameter, which makes it almost 4 times the size of the planet, Earth. Also, Neptune is located around 4.4 billion km from Earth, and for that reason, it’s not visible to naked eyes. Even using binoculars, you won’t have the ability to observe the planet clearly.

Here are some fascinating facts about Neptune:

• Neptune was observed by several astronomers from early times. The great Galileo observed Neptune, but didn’t realize he was looking at a world. In early times, the telescopes weren’t potent enough to assist the researchers and astronomers discern planets. When Neptune was seen, the astronomers couldn’t find the disc shape of Earth.

• The world was detected through mathematical calculations. In accordance with the calculations, it was estimated that Neptune was one billion kilometers farther from Sun compared to Uranus.

He also has the exact results as the British astronomer.

• The discovery of Neptune is credited to the British astronomer in addition to the French astronomer.

• The heart of the planet contains nickel, iron and other silicates. While the mantle of Neptune is composed of water, methane, Centurian Wildlife Control, ammonia and other chemical compounds. The mantle of Earth is

• The atmosphere of Neptune is composed of 80 percent hydrogen, 19 percent helium, and one percent of ammonia, water and methane.

• The world gets its characteristic blue colour because methane within its atmosphere absorbs the red light in sunlight and then reflects it blue into space.

• Until today, researchers and astronomers have found thirteen moons revolving around Neptune. It’s quite possible that there are still more moons waiting to be found.

• Voyager 2 was the first spaceship to reach Neptune from the year 1989. It took pictures of the world and through these images, researchers discovered that the world has five rings. These rings are known as Galle, LeVerrier, Lassell, Arago and Adams. It’s thought that the rings formed when one of world’s moons got too close and broke up into countless particles as a consequence of Neptune’s gravity.

Life on Europa?

Jupiter, Ganymede, Space, Astronomy


Europa is the sixth moon of Jupiter and has been discovered by Galileo in 1610. It’s very possible that at that time, life has been swimming around in the subsurface ocean Europa almost certainly contains. For those 400 years, it’s entirely possible that extraterrestrial life has been around, but we just have not known it. This is as intriguing a reason as any to go there right now.

The surface of Europa is the smoothest in the entire Solar System, which supports the concept that there is a water ocean beneath it. There are very few craters but one of note is that the Pwyll crater, whose bright white look again implies the presence of water below the surface. When it comes nearer to Jupiter the gravitational pull is raised, which slightly stretches the planet out, and once it goes farther away in its own orbit, Europa returns to its spherical shape. Additionally it is an excellent example of gravitational energy turning to kinetic energy, which in turn becomes heat energy.

There have been many probes which have visited Mars in the hope of locating present or past life. It’s very unlikely to harbor any sorts of life now, although its chances of having played host to microorganisms in the past is still quite good. However, there is nothing as persuasive as a liquid water ocean to hold extraterrestrial life in the present day. As you read this guide, weird and amazing creatures could be swimming around the deathly cold seas of Europa, or parked around some hydrothermal vent (as we see in the ocean depths on our own planet Earth). It’s because of this that we must go to Europa, not within twenty, not over ten, but when possible. A robotic probe could be sent within five decades.

A robotic probe would need to carry substantial power on board, maybe by atomic fission. It would need to melt through the good ice crust that’s at least ten kilometres thick, and then release a probe which could swim through the cold oceans and transmit information back to earth.

Unfortunately, a plan known as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter was shelved five decades back, and funding cuts have seen a string of false starts at the search for life on Europa. If we are to discover extraterrestrial life any time soon, this has to change.

Finding Venus

Venus, Planet, Hemisphere, Front Side

The planet Venus is closest neighbor of Earth. It took the title from the Greek God named Venus and was also known as Evening Star. The planet Venus can be observed after sunset and before sunrise. Venus is the solar system’s 6th largest planet and is closer to the sun than the Earth. It’s the only planet that orbits .

Venus is named Shukra in the ancient Hindu astrology. It was observed from the Babylonians in the ancient 1600BC and was called world Ishtar, the goddess of love and womanhood.

Venus was called the wandering star long before the invention of telescope. The westerners had thought Venus to be two distinct planets in the morning and late afternoon. Phythagoras was the first to find out in the 6th century that the planet was one. He thought that Venus orbited around Earth. Galileo noticed in 17th century that Venus had traits such as the moon.

A Russian genius named Mikhail Lomonosov had first discovered the atmosphere of Venus in 1761. Chester Smith Lyman was the first to detect the ring around dark side of the planet. The atmosphere of Venus is quite dense which causes difficulty for scientists who wanted to know its rotation period.

Venus has some traits that are similar with Earth. Venus contains silicon rocks present on its surface like Earth. The size and make up is very similar to Earth. Moreover, Venus and Earth has the identical core that’s made up of compact iron deposits and the middle of Venus is quite similar to that of Earth. However, its atmosphere is very compact for hosting life. Venus is filled with sulfuric acid clouds and the acute heat dries up all bodies of water. Its surface is a lot hotter than Mercury’s. Vast majority of Venus surface features are inspired from women.

There have been a number of space probe missions to Venus. The first one was that the Russian Venera 1. The first successful spacecraft that came close to Venus was America’s Mariner 2 in 1962.

Planets Outside our Solar System

Exoplanet, Exomoon, Ocean, Planet, Rain

An extrasolar planet is one which is not in our Solar system. According to The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, at the 19th of June 2009, 353 extrasolar plants had been discovered. The rate of discovery is increasing very quickly.

All the planets so far confirmed happen to be orbiting round stars. Planets not orbiting stars do exist, but discovering them is difficult although at least three possibilities are found.

These are sometimes called free floating planets. They’re defined in the newspaper Free Floating Planets by Annemarie Hagenaars, Ilja Rosenbrand and Charlotte de Valk as a thing that does not orbit a star and has a mass less than 13 times that of Jupiter. (This upper mass limit is to differentiate them from brown dwarf stars, and is roughly the mass below which sustained nuclear fusion occurs.) I would also put a lower limit of mass on what we would think about a Planet.

Naturally, nearly all of the planets so far discovered are much bigger than the Earth. This is because larger things are easier to find, and doesn’t imply that Earth sized planets are rare. The array of sizes of extrasolar planets found suggests that there’ll be plenty of Earth sized planets out there.

In 1992, a potential planet (Planet: PSR 1257+12 b) was discovered which is just a bit more than a fifth of the mass of the planet, so we can expect increasing numbers of small planets to be discovered.

Habitable Zone

For all of us, or similar creatures, to live on a planet it generally needs to be orbiting a star in the fairly narrow region where water could be liquid on at least portion of the planet, at least part of the time. A planet also should be big enough to hold a reasonable atmosphere.

A planet also should not be too large, although there has been plenty of speculation about what type of life could live on gas giants.

Although no Earth sized planets have been found in the habitable zones of other celebrities, about 30 larger planets have. We can expect there to also be Earth sized planets.

Earth Sized Planets

I’ve been using this term loosely. Maybe we ought to consider what sized planet we can live on. One as little as Mars, if it had sufficient water and was the right distance from it star would do, although this is near the lower limit.

A planet much larger than the Earth might have a tendency to have an uncomfortably significant gravity. However, if it had been of lower density which our Earth, it would have a larger diameter and its surface gravity would not be quite as high. From the limited sample we have available, it seems that the Earth is a high density planet. It is probable that Humans could live on some planets with a larger mass than the Earth in addition to a larger surface area for living on.

Habitable Moons

Based of the limited information we have, we can expect that many planets will have moons, and that these will be of a huge array of sizes.

The 30 so big planets in the habitable zones of the celebrities might have Earth sized moons. There is nothing impossible about a really big planet, like lots of the ones found so far, having more than one Earth sized moon.

There could be an additional type of habitable moon. If a significant planet was orbiting farther out than the habitable zone of its star, tidal forces could warm its moons enough to melt water. This warming effect is clear in the moons of Jupiter.

No definite signs of life have been found on any extrasolar planet, but at present our techniques for observing them are not good enough to inform. These techniques are rapidly improving.

There are certainly plenty of places in our galaxy which could support life like the Earth’s. We still don’t know if extraterrestrial life exists.

Mars

Mars, Planet, Space, Cosmos, Sphere

Even though the Mars opposition occurs once every twenty-six months, it may nevertheless be considered once in a lifetime event if you take under consideration the final time that a Mars opposition occurred on exactly the same night as a blue moon. Planetary resistance is an occurrence that happens when the planet rises as the sun sets. This typically happens when the Earth is directly between the sun and the planet, causing the world to follow the exact same elliptical path as sunlight. Add that the moon will be full twice in the month of January, called a blue moon, then there is a lot to get excited about. What is the reason behind all the excitement? The next full moon of the month of January is on the 30th, the same day that Mars will be in direct opposition.

Most astronomers took the chance to just observe the passing of this phenomenon, while watchmaker David Gill, in 1877, used the opportunity to use precise measurement devices and calculations to figure out the solar parallax simply by observing Mars. This was an remarkable astronomic breakthrough since it was responsible for redefining the calculations for finding the distance from the earth to the sun. The parallax has just been upgraded with more accurate calculations, but using the exact same formula that brought David Gill to his conclusion.

With the most recent opposition in sight, the eminent return of Mars has prompted much ado. The night sky will be illuminated by a full moon on January 29th and 30th, as the Red Planet rises at Six O’clock PM, EST.. This, however, isn’t the start of the event, which is set to last almost a week and is marked with the closest the red planet has been to Earth since August of 2003. Mars is actually closest to the earth on the 27th of January, and it will slowly ascend upwards as the days progress. If you’re wanting to catch a glimpse of the gorgeous red surface of the planet in its absolute closest. Brave the chilly, or enjoy the balmy summer night in case your in the southern hemisphere on the 27th and get your telescope into focus. This will be the best night for optimal viewing of the red planet, since it will gradually diminish in size in the subsequent weeks. Mars will shine at Magnitude -1.28, almost as bright as the brightest star in the sky, Sirus. Don’t delay or you will have to wait another twenty-six weeks for the March of 2012 opposition. However, the next time that the opposition of Mars will occur on the same night as a blue moon depends on the cycle of the next blue moon.

Not only does the opposition and Blue Moon happen on the same night, Mars is only a hand (7 degrees of arc) away from the Moon. It is critical, then, to document the events of the night to say that you’re there. Maybe even some Pictures to mark the occasion. For the next time this occurs, you children or grandchildren are the ones to watch it.

To the Moon

Astronaut, American Flag, Salute, Space

The answers to this question are diverse, and individuals on all sides are very enthusiastic about how they feel. Some assert that exploration is among the most basic principles about what makes people great. Without mining and treading into new waters, progress can’t be made. Others argue for the scientific discoveries which may be made while others assert that we’ve been there and should set our sites on other things like Mars.

However, it is not a”been there, done that” situation. There are still unanswered questions which could be answered if we go back to the moon, which can be much more. We don’t even know for sure how the moon was made. It helps us discover the real story behind the creation of not just the Earth and moon, but also of our own solar system.

If a return mission to the moon become a manned mission? Or if a robot be used instead? Manned missions take immense risk at the expense of human life, while unmanned robots come at a massive cost of money.

Funding

However, the dilemma of cost arises. Those in favor of a return to the moon assert that the costs of going back to the moon are much less than the expenses of possibly going to Mars. Yet, in this down market and the government spending at an all time high on additional applications, an individual has to wonder and wonder if spending money on missions to the moon is in the best interest of the country. Some argue that using the present poverty and environmental issues currently plaguing the world, we will need to concentrate on things here, not beyond the realm of the planet.

Perhaps if there’s a return to the moon, it won’t be achieved by a government sponsored program or with government funding. Private enterprises could take a major role in returning to the moon.

The general national mentality is an additional factor to take into account. When John F. Kennedy made his speech in the early 1960s, the United States was in a really different place in it is national mindset than it is now. The early 60s brought a euphoria from a booming economy and the end of the Korean War and World War II. There was a feeling that so much was possible, and individuals put their sights on distant horizons. However, in the current day, the market is struggling, and we’re obsessed with all the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Conclusion

The subject of returning to the Moon is a complicated one. There are many questions which will need to be requested in order for us to start to talk if returning to the Moon is feasible. With the close of the Space Shuttle Program and reductions in funding for NASA, it is going to be interesting to see what the future holds for space travel.

Any reproductions of this Guide must retain the following:

Should we go back to the moon? Do you find any drawbacks?

The First Planet

Mercury, Planet, Surface, Solar System

In our tour of the solar system, we should begin by exploring the innermost planet. A brief distance from the inferno of our sun we find it, hurtling through space at 40 to 60 km per second in its 88 day cycle around the sun. As we approach it we notice its similarity to your body much closer to Earth, our own moon. It too is heavily cratered, with no atmosphere (or only a trace of one) to protect its surface or erode signs of previous collisions. The sun as seen from this distance is approximately twice as large as from Earth, and we know this will be the most dominant force affecting our trip to this planet.
Now we’ve touched down and we take a fast look around. We know that the surface gravity of Mercury is 38% of Earth’s, so if we weighed 200 pounds before, here we weigh only 76 lbs. Looking up at the sky we see a black, star-speckled skies dominated by the fiery globe of sunlight almost 3 times bigger than we are knowledgeable about. There is only the faintest hint of an air, and the only way we even know it is there’s the instrumentation we have with us. It will be completely useless to us. The sun beats down unabated in all its fury, and the temperature hovers around 800 degrees Fahrenheit. If we had been on the night side the temperature would drop to -270 degrees. We would never live here without space suits.

Bending down to inspect the surface we find a layer of dust similar to what astronauts found on the moon. This is the result of centuries of meteor impacts, as well as the extreme temperature differentials implemented from a hellishly close sun. The processes which shaped this world across the eons were substantially different than those which shaped our home world.

Around us are the pockmarks of craters, some mountain ranges, and a horizon much nearer than that which we know at home.

Contrary to what astronomers once thought, there’s actually a cycle of days here, but it’s much different than anything we are accustomed to. Mercury is not tidally locked with sunlight, but tidal forces have slowed it to the point where its day is 58 of our times (really it will one day many years from now become locked one facet to its enormous neighbor). This means that Mercury’s day is about three quarters as long as its year. This results in some very peculiar observations if we were to stay that long. In certain places on this world we would then see the sun slow and really backtrack a brief distance before continuing its slow march across the sky.

We take one more look around the globe. No, Mercury is not an enticing place for people to go to. Maybe one day we will have reason to be here, either for the rich deposits of iron and other metals or for observational purposes, but this isn’t the day.

Mercury has been know and observed at least since the days of the Sumerians from the 3rd century BC. After the Sumerians there’s better documentation in the Babylonian Empire. Records from the 7th century BC refer back to much earlier documents which described observations of the planet. The Babylonians called the planet Nebu, after the messenger of the gods in their mythology. This is an interesting parallel to the Greek mythology and reference to the innermost planet. The ancient Greeks had two names for the entire world, Apollo visible in the morning and Hermes observable in the evening. They eventually came to understand that these were exactly the identical object, and it was even proposed this early in history that Mercury and Venus orbited the sun.
Early modern astronomy started making observations of Mercury in the early 17th century when Galileo turned an early telescope to the inner world. A sketchy vision of the planet developed from there, but its proximity to the sun has always made this one of the most difficult members of our solar system to study. It has only been recently with the advent of new imaging techniques that ground-based monitoring has drastically improved.
And what of research with space probes? This is also laced with technical difficulties. An application of Newton’s Laws of Motion shows that it requires more rocket fuel to achieve an orbit around Mercury than necessary to escape the solar system. Because of this just one spacecraft has visited the planet thus far, the Mariner 10. After its analysis of Venus, the probe made three flybys of Mercury in 1974 and 1975 as it mapped about 45% of the world’s surface. Its closest approach was 203 miles on March 16,1975. The Mariner 10 circles the sun in its own lone orbit around the sun to this day, although its digital instruments have long since been destroyed by the sun’s intense radiation.
Our toughest Mercury research project to date was started August 3,2004 with the launch of the Messenger by NASA from Cape Canaveral. After two quick flybys of Venus in 2006 and 2007 the Messenger will eventually work its way inward and make three flybys of Mercury in 2008 and 2009. It is carrying high resolution imaging devices, spectrometers to determine the composition of the crust, and magnetometers to study charged particles around the planet.
There is an astronomical event which is of interest to amateurs and professionals alike, but not always for any scientific value. After every couple of centuries there’s an occultation of Mercury and Venus. This occurs when Venus really passes directly in front of Mercury for a few minutes. The last one occurred on May 28,1737 and another will occur in 2133.

Much of Mercury’s mass is composed of an iron rich core. Recent theories suggest that this core comprises most of the 4879 mile diameter of Earth. Because of Mercury’s slow rotation period, there’s very little tectonic or volcanic activity.
There have been several theories introduced to explain why Mercury is so metal rich, and why its core features such a huge part of the world’s structure. One popular theory is that the world was struck by a large body early in its history and dropped most of its outer,”lighter”, mantle. Another theory is that the extreme heat of the early sun vaporized the outer part of the planet, giving the young Mercury a dense atmosphere of gaseous stone, which was carried away by the huge solar winds of a much more volatile sun. The competing theories to explain the unusually heavy makeup of Mercury will be analyzed by the approaching Messenger mission.
The Future of Mercury and Its Possible Role in Our Own Future
Mercury’s most dominant feature makes it an attractive part of our future: its huge stores of heavy metals, especially iron. Though its proximity to the sun makes it tough to envision humans working and living there, I could envision automated factories mining its own surface and freighters picking up the ore to bring it back for our use.
Mercury will remain pretty much as it is for centuries to come. As the sun slowly gains in intensity over the next 4 to 5 billion years, the planet’s surface temperature will slowly rise with it. Then a singular moment will arrive as the entire solar system changes with the beginning of the sun’s passing into its next stage. After the sun consumes a vital amount of its hydrogen gas it will, within a matter of only a couple days, enter its red giant stage.
At the point Mercury will be the first of the inner planets to be entirely consumed.

Facts about the Solar System

Sky, Stars, Planets, Space, Moon, Star

The solar system consists of the sun, the closest star to us, and the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, as well as numerous comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and the interplanetary medium. The nine planets, along with their satellites, revolve around the sun in certain orbits. The planets and the satellites are said to be the members of the solar family or the solar system.

It’s thought that the sun, the center-piece of the solar system, has been born five billion years back, emitting heat and light non-stop, and it is expected to do this for another five billion years. The sun is the richest repository of electromagnetic energy, in the form of heat and light. The sun contains 99.85 percent of all the matter in the solar system. The planets, which were condensed from the same disk of material that formed the sun, contain only 0.135 per cent of the mass of the solar system.

They all have compact, rugged surfaces like the Earth’s. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are known as the Jovian (Jupiter-like) planets on account of their colossal sizes.

By quantity, nearly all the solar system seems to be an empty void. But, this”vacuum of space” encompasses the interplanetary medium containing various forms of energy, dust, and gas. The flow of gas and charged particles called plasma, mostly protons and electrons, is called the solar wind. Its speed is about 250 miles (400 km ) per second in the neighborhood of the Earth’s orbit.

The entire solar system, together with the stars visible on a clear night, orbits the center of our home galaxy called the Milky Way, which is a spiral disk of 200 billion stars.

Please Play the Masters Tiger Woods

Golf, Golfing, Driver, Tee, Shot

Tiger’s identity is tied to raising the BAR. The what?

How can you compete in the Masters when your identity has been shattered? Tiger Woods is in conflict with himself – especially now that he is going to play at Augusta National in the Masters Tournament.

Sure Tiger has won 4 Pros Tournaments, and he may actually win his 5th this weekend… we will see. However, his personal life is affected. His identity was revealed. The results that we have all been seeing since last Thanksgiving with Tiger is really a great index of his beliefs.

So that means that what we’re seeing in Tiger’s life recently was really due to beliefs that he adopted some time ago. For any reason Tiger’s beliefs had him believing that he was untouchable when it came into extramarital affairs, and maybe taking illegal growth hormone chemicals (that is still speculation).

The thrill of doubt, and the significance factor Tiger received from these girls were powerful enough to change his belief system to that of it is okay to be doing what he was doing. That rush became addicting to himand he kept seeking it out. Who knows what the true number of women he had affairs with – that does not really matter. What does matter is that his beliefs, and his identity have now been revealed for the world to see. So what is next?

From the Dream Bar Cafe system we state that all Results are lagging indicators of some-thing else. Your feelings, your thoughts, your actions, and your thinking are considered a leading indicator, which lead to forming your Beliefs… hence your identity of yourself.

This is why we put heavy emphasis on increasing your own BAR (Belief, Action, Result) cycle. Change one variable and you will see a result. Change a few variables, and you will see exponential results. Correct thinking leads to correct results.

Just how can Tiger get back to adjusting his beliefs? He needs to reevaluate his DREAM (Desire/Decisions, Reasons, Enthusiasm, Actions, Manifestation) process. Only by stepping up and moving through the full DREAM BAR CAFE system will he know what Drives himand what his motives are for doing what he’s been doing – showing his identity.

Do you think he was thinking about them when he let his beliefs denigrate to the level they were at before this all came out? His identity as a Playboy became so powerful that nothing else mattered – as it came to the thrill of the chase. Please do not misunderstand me… I believe that Tiger loves his family, his wife Elin, his two children, his Mom, his Faith in Buddhism, and his competitive golfing career. I am positive of this fact.

What occurred was that Tiger gradually chipped away at his belief system that his parents instilled in him from a young age. He started discovering that his life has to be mixed up, and have a little uncertainty thrown in. He allowed his beliefs to slip, which led to taking risky actions, and thus the results which became evident.

Will his game be effected during this weeks Masters Tournament? Probably not. He still has those superb competitive beliefs that he’s the worlds greatest golfer – that should not have changed. This week is also feeding his other human needs of certainty, uncertainty, love & value. So I don’t think you need to worry about him… he’ll do just fine. This is Tiger’s week to shine in the spotlight and get his individual needs fulfilled and his tank full.

Whether you like Tiger or dislike him does not matter. You can now see where and how Tiger’s identity went astray – by knowing that your thoughts and feelings have a direct influence on your results. You can now use this in your life to create the results you select.

There’s one caveat to look out for with Tiger, and in your life. You can change an action and get a different result – for a while… however, unless you change your belief, your identity will certainly kick-in and you’ll snap right back to the same person you were before. That’s because you can never exceed what your identity will allow.

Interesting isn’t it? Give it some thought on your own life… and increase your BAR.

P.S.. Who will earn the coveted Green Jacket? I’d say it is the person with the strongest belief in themselves, and the player that understands, and implements the Dream Bar Cafe system best.

Operation Citadel

Tank, Main Battle Tank, The War

The German forces were bogged down by the Russian winter, the Russian victory at Stalingrad and then the following spring rain and mud. In the summer of 1943 the Germans had amassed a huge force to attack Russia and regain lost ground. This would lead to the largest tank battle in history and also lends a dynamic background to this book.

There are 4 major characters that drive this story. The first is a Spanish officer Captain Luis Ruiz de Vega serving with the SS Liebstandarte Panzer Division. The next 3 are all from the same Russian Cossack family. Dimitri Berko, a personal driving the T-34 in the Soviet 3rd Mechanized Division. He is controlled by Sergeant Valentin Berko, Dimitri’s son, and Katya Berkovna, Dimitri’s daughter, a night bomber with the famous all-female bomber squadrons of the Red Air Force, so-called the Night Witches from the Germans that they bomb. The 3 primary story lines follow Vega being assigned to escort the new super panzer of the German Army, the Tiger 1 Panzerkampfwagen VI, through train to the front and assure that the Tigers are delivered intact. He then starts itching for action to command one of the Tiger tanks at the Battle of Kursk. He soon realizes how the Tiger is most successful in battle. With Demitri and son Valentin in precisely the same T-34 there is much of the father/son tension together with the tank battles that ensue. The author keeps all things separate into what sounds like 3 different stories revolving around the build up to the tank battle at Kursk. Each character has there own well detailed back stories which are fleshed out through memories, flashbacks and boastful story telling during the lulls in fighting.

The best aspect of the book is that the historical accuracy and detail of the Tiger tank and the Battle of Kursk. This book was very near being non-fiction in the degree of detail, but also very engrossing character development. After studying about the amount of research that was conducted by David L Robbins, I knew then just how realistic this book was. He had spent weeks on the battlefields of Kursk in the middle of summer getting a feel for the heat and sun of the Russian steppes. He also trained in how to derail a train with explosives as the Partisan Russian fighters attempted in stopping the shipment of the Tiger tanks in the narrative. Time was also spent in pouring over video reports from Russian and German tankers’ first hand combat accounts. “Hands on” equipment training was given to him ranging from small arms into the tanks in the Aberdeen Ordinance Museum in Maryland and then being pushed around in a restored T-34 in Virginia. David L Robbins certainly did his homework for this book and you’ll feel it when you read it. This is a must read for any Tiger 1 fan and any WW2 fan generally.

Summer Football

Football, Running Back, Professional

In the 1995 City to Surf fun run, Australia’s premiere foot race, a 14 kilometer trek through Hyde Park in Central Sydney to the Pacific Ocean, a 19-year-old guy suffered a cardiac arrest to the finishing line and later died. 600 people were treated for minor issues and 200 were treated by physiotherapists. Medical facilities treated 55 participants, of whom 38 suffered heat exhaustion.
“The people who get into trouble are the highly motivated amateurs who train in the cool of the day and are not ready for competition”

Dr. Rowley Richards

  • City to Surf Medical Director

It certainly doesn’t take a doctor to point out the pains of physical activity in extreme heat. I am sure, at some point in time each and every one of us has over-exerted ourselves in the warmth, even if that means a frantic sprint to the disappearing ice cream truck. In fact, it’s no secret that soccer players are the best conditioned athletes in the world — because they must be. Consider running for 60 minutes in an open air arena on the equator, or the deserts of northern Africa. Better yet, try it with full pads and helmet in a pre-season NFL encounter in Phoenix, Arizona in August. It is no wonder that the Arizona Cardinals get three of their first four matches of each season on the road.

Following this simple human truth, it would follow in football, just as in marathons or any other sporting event, that better conditioned athletes will fare better in extreme heat than diminished conditioned athletes. While oddsmakers take several factors into account when determining pointspreads, it is reasonable to say that better teams are better, at least in part, due to superior physical conditioning.

The most successful training camp in the 1998 season, (our test season), in terms of attendance and commitment from the players, was that of the Denver Broncos. Fresh off their 1997 Superbowl win, where physical conditioning was the deciding factor in the pit, as Denver’s lightweight but well conditioned O-Line simply dominated Green Bay’s big but relatively out-of-shape D-Line, the Broncos went back to the secret well that had given them the extra edge when it mattered most, and it paid off again.

We’re not surprised when a stronger and better conditioned athlete dominates in the ring, or in a foot race, so why should we be surprised when better conditioned football players win on the soccer field, particularly when the elements demand a superior effort. In actuality, that is exactly the reality in the modern NFL, as league parity reduces the gap in talent, it is intangibles, like physical conditioning, which give some teams an edge on some days.

In actuality, there were 17 regular season games in the NFL in 1998, where the game time temperature was recorded at 86 degrees or higher. The favorite in those 17 games held a 15-2 record straight up, and a 12-4-1 record ATS. In actuality, of both straight up fav losses, one was Carolina dropping as a house favorite to Atlanta in week 1, but remember, the Falcons went on to play in the Super Bowl that year. Another occasion, was a 13-7 loss, Tennessee their Nashville debut at Vanderbilt Stadium in week 2 against The Chargers, which looks to be the only true exception to the rule.

Furthermore, the hotter it got, the more widespread the phenomenon became. There were six games in 1998 in which the temperature hit as high as 90 degrees at game time. They were;

WEEK 1 – Oakland @ Kansas City – 94 levels

WEEK 6 – Chicago @ Arizona – 91 degrees

Now, there are amazing similarities between all six of the above hotties, besides they all hit 90 degrees or higher at game time. Most assuredly, all six games saw the favorite manage the heat a lot better than the lesser team of the day and win handily over the underdog. The favorites had a 6-0 ATS mark over the underdogs once the heat was on. In fact, the underdogs in those 6 games had difficulties catching more than just their breath, as not one of the underdogs in one of these games enrolled over 16 points. In actuality, combined, the underdogs in these 6 contests scored just 57 points, or, 9.5 per game average. The favorites in these 6 games were able to take advantage of fatigued defenses, as the favorites combined for a whopping 161 points in those 6 games, compared to only 57 allowed.

Another interesting property of warmth is its debilitating effects with time. To put it differently, how would the heat take its toll on a defense as the game wears on? This is a really intriguing question, and one, which could unlock the door to untold opportunities. Consider the outcomes of the next graph, which is a breakdown of scoring by quarter by both the favorite, underdog and cumulative scoring at the six hot games combined.

Quarter . 1st 2nd . 1st Half . 3rd 4th . Total .

Favorite . 30 41 . 71 . 34 56 .161 .

Underdog . 3 7 . 10 . 21 26 . 57 .

TOTAL . 33 48 . 81 . 55 82 . 218 .

I do not have to tell you the startling implications of the above graph, and what it might mean to half-time lines and totals. But really, should we be surprised? I guess it really is not rocket science to conclude that a hot game would have a predictable effect on both teams defenses as the match wore on, however, sometimes we can’t see the forest for the trees. The favorite continues to dominate a sexy game from wire to wire, but even the superior defense starts to weaken as the game progresses, and points become more plentiful.

It’s also not surprising that things are tough to find in these games, as groups prefer to pound the line and wear down the defense in favor of sending their receivers on deep jaunts. Under the Total played out in 67% of our 90 level games or higher, which was consistent with hot games overall, as Under the Total was the result in 67 percent of games where the game time temperature was 86 degrees or higher.

Playing Football in the cold

Italy, Sunrise, Sky, Clouds, Beautiful

Ever wonder why your fingers, toes, ears and other extremities get especially cold in frigid weather?

The body adjusts to extremely cold weather by adjusting the flow of blood. Crucial organs, such as the heart and liver, get more blood which is redirected away from the extremities, such as the fingers, toes and ears. Blood vessels in the extremities constrict, almost shutting off, leaving the skin at higher risk of frostbite.

That is the medical definition, but anybody who’s ever laced on skates in an outdoor rink, hit the slopes, or perhaps engaged in a friendly snowball fight can tell you that your motor abilities decrease in frigid weather. Throwing a football with numb fingers is not only tricky, it can be debilitating. In actuality, playing any position with numb fingers increases the odds of”finger jams”, which is only when tingling prevents you from squeezing the ball the way you normally would and increases the chance of an accident on impact with the ball or an opposing player. It’s only one of the many tiny inconveniences of playing in cold weather. Everything constricts in cold weather, for example, pigskin, leaving the ball using an entirely different sense – throwing a cold football is completely different than throwing a warm soccer with an expanded hide.

Playing in the cold is perfected through practice, so teams who are forced to practice in the cold are invariably going to perform better in that situation. Pay particular attention in cold weather games to the quarterback, and his expertise in the situation. Teams that practice at the cold primarily include Green Bay, Chicago, Denver, The Giants, Jets, Eagles, Steelers, Bills, Ravens, Patriots, Browns, Bengals, Redskins and to a lesser degree – The Chiefs and Titans. Players who exercise in chilly weather changes year to year; Brett Farvre is among the all time best – in any weather.

There were 10 regular season games in 1998 (our test season) in which the game time temperature was recorded at less than 40 degrees.

Week 10 – San Diego @ Denver – 37 degrees

Week 14 – Kansas City @ Denver – 35 levels

Week 16 – Baltimore @ Chicago – 36 degrees

Week 16 – Tennessee @ Green Bay – 29 degrees – snow

Week 17 – Minnesota @ Tennessee – 35 levels

Week 17 – Tampa Bay @ Cincinnati – 39 degrees

Week 17 – Detroit @ Baltimore – 39 degrees

Week 17 – Chicago @ Green Bay – 39 degrees

Week 17 – NY Giants @ Philadelphia – 37 degrees

Week 17 – New England @ NY Jets – 37 degrees

Do you know what the 10 coldest games of this year have in common, other than the fact that they were the 10 coldest games of the year? In each of the 10 games, the favorite won the game, usually by a landslide. In fact, the favorite had an ATS mark of 8-2 in the 10 coldest games of the year.

Not only did the favorites from these cold wars win the match, like their hot air cousins, the favorites dominated. In fact, of all the underdogs in these 10 contests, only two did the underdog score more than 16 points, Kansas City in their 35-31 loss to Denver, and Tennessee in their 30-22 loss at Green Bay. In the other eight matches, the underdogs scored only 72 points combined, or, nine points per game normally. The favorites scored 263 points combined, for better than 26 ppg on average. Again, UNDER THE TOTAL dominated the sportsbooks in these games, as the Under performed to a tune of 7-2-1 in these 10 games.

It is interesting to note that the NFL was pretty fair in the scheduling of the cold wars, as only San Diego & Tampa Bay were asked to go”out of their element” with respect to playing in cold weather. San Diego was wasted in Denver, managing just 10 points, but Tampa Bay shocked many in a 35-0 rout of the Bengals in Synergy Field in 39 degree weather.

In other words, it certainly appears that favorites in a cold weather game are preferred for good reason.

Artillery in India

Fortress, Yellow, Tunnel, Cannon, Gun

The Sikh Army was the most potent force faced by the British in India. The Khalsa Fauj acquitted itself creditably in the two Anglo Sikh wars. British historians have alluded to the ability of the Sikh gunners during the conflicts at Mudki and Chillianwala during both Anglo Sikh wars. The gunners and their pieces of artillery were the legacy of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The maharaja who dominated the Punjab for 40 years till his demise in 1839 assembled the artillery of the Khalsa Fauj (Army) to an unparalleled efficacy level. No Indian ruler could match the genius of Ranjit who built up his artillery with the help of foreign advisors -mostly French. The period from 1801 to 1839 marked the maturation of the Sikh army from a semi feudal and disorganized force to an efficient fighting machine which could hold its own against the best European armies.

Out of these Court set about organizing the artillery. He joined the Maharajas service in 1827 and married a regional Sikh girl. He started the practice of the gunners and made the organization of the batteries and guns.In reality he raised the degree of efficiency of the Khalsa army at par with the western powers.The foundries of Maharaja Ranjit Singh were accommodated by Court to produce high quality guns and howitzers. In this he was helped by local gun smith Sardar Lahina Singh Majithia.

It is worthwhile to remember that if the first shell was made at the Lahore foundry that the Maharaja bestowed a prize of Rs 30,000 on Court. Subsequently fuses for the firearms were also manufactured there. The participation of Court to the development of Sikh artillery is monumental. His impact on the Artillery efficacy bore fruit later as during the wars with the British, Sikh guns made the British pay a hefty price by their lethal salvos.

The Sikh artillery really came into its own only after the entrance of the European advisers of Ranjit Singh. This artillery was to distinguish itself in the conflicts of the North West frontier and later the British.The most deadly part of the Sikh army were the guns made at the maharajas foundries in Lahore. These guns added teeth to the khalsa (Sikh) army making it into a powerful force. Ranjit Singh had about 35 artillery pieces when he started his reign in 1801. However by the time of the first Anglo-Sikh war in 1845 that the Sikhs could marshal almost 250 guns. Some historians estimate that Ranjit Singh’s army may well have had more than 500 artillery pieces.

Ranjit Singh must take credit for the evolution of the artillery in his army. Right from 1807 he had been seized with the idea of producing his own cannons. In another 2 years mortars were produced and Ranjit instructed his chief scientist Mian Qadir Bakhsh a Muslim, to study the British guns and create similar copies. Ranjit also on the advice of his French generals set up the horse drawn artillery. By 1830 Ranjit could have a look at his gunnery division and appreciate the fact that he had over 100 horse drawn artillery pieces.

The Sikh shortly mounted an invasion of the North West. In conflicts with the Pathans and the Afghans from the Frontier area the Sikh Army made significant use of Artillery. The Battle of Jamrud and capture of the fort was on no account possible without the unerring aim of the Sikh gunners.
When Maharaja died in 1839 he left behind a potent military force equipped with professional artillery. But the Sikh leadership committed hara-kiri by attacking the British with whom Ranjit had a treaty of peace. The Sikh army aided by the artillery could have carried the day but bad generalship and a desire to allow the British win from the traitorous Sikh Prime Minister Gulab Singh and his coterie resulted in the defeat of the Sikhs.

The battles in Mudki and Chillianwale will forever be etched in memory of the glorious effect of the Sikh artillery while the sun was setting on the Sikh Kingdom. A good deal of guns were captured by the British and were paraded at Calcutta after the second Sikh war. Many were melted down at their foundry at Cossipore. However with the passage of time only a couple of artillery pieces can be found mostly in the united kingdom and the Lahore Museum.

Never Forget

Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, Memorial

Each year a growing number of people forget Pearl Harbor, and there are fewer statements in the news about it. Within another decade very few will still be alive, who were there to remind us and their recollections will not be so good anyway. Most likely, it is going to be us who reminds them of the fateful day and exactly what happened.

We must not allow our history die and we must not forget the perils of warfare or the day in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. It is up to every one of us to remember and read up on this December 7, 1941 and we must not let that memory perish. It is important that we make sure that it’s taught in schools, as it is paramount that we protect all we are and all we have built from potential future dangers.

Each year a growing number of people forget about Pearl Harbor and quite honestly, that is unacceptable and it’s a spit in the face of our ancestors who built this great nation. We cannot allow that to occur. It’s each and everyone’s duty to read up on this, know your history and pass this information down.

Have a conversation with your loved ones about this December 7th and discuss how different the world is and how it’s also much the same. Think about it.

Learn more about Pearl Harbor Day:

Operation Overlord

Landing, Dropship, Normandy, D Day, June

“We will have peace, even if we must fight for it”- General Dwight D. Eisenhower. June 1, 1944

“”Sure, we want to go home. The quickest way to get it over with is to go get the bastards who started it. And when we get to Berlin, I am personally going to shoot that paper hanging son-of-a-bitch Hitler. Just like I’d shoot a snake!” General George S. Patton (just before the Normandy Invasion) June 5th 1944

In the summertime in 1944, Hitler’s Wehrmacht (armed forces) nevertheless were very much in control of all of the lands the Germans had fought and won during their Blitzkrieg campaign of 1941- 1943. The majority of the entire regionl of Europe was still in the stranglehold of Hitler’s clutches, and the allies were in a desperate place to somehow loosen his grip on Europe by any means necessary. A year before that summer of 1944, General Dwight D. Eisenhower was commissioned by Franklin Roosevelt to think of a grand military plan to invade the European stronghold that the German military were holding loyal to. The first proposal for the invasion was named”Operation Roundup”, then changed to”Operation Sledgehammer” a couple of months later. The invasion was put on hold until May of 1944 through the insistence of Joseph Stalin and FDR from the protestations of Winston Churchill who desired to go forward with Eisenhower’s strategy in August of 1943. The turning point that finally changed Churchill’s head was the agreement that Stalin would assist the allies by mounting an offensive against Hitler in eastern Europe in exactly the exact same time that the US Army and Marines invaded Normandy, which would help deliver a mortal two prong attack against Germany’s military.

On June 1st of 1944, the new campaign title for the invasion of Normandy was changed for the final time. Operation Overlord. Was the new title for what would eventually become the largest sea borne invasion that the world had ever seen, with over 3 million allied troops taking action against the Germans and more than 6900 sea vessels bringing the allied troops into the sandy beach at Normandy. In the late hours of June 5th, massive air attacks and bombardments started waking up all of the sleeping French citizens and German troops stationed near Omaha Beach. A French woman who lived in a chateau overlooking the beach gives us a very descriptive first-hand account of what occurred that night. “We’re deafened by the planes, making a never-ending round, very low; of course what I believed were German airplanes are quite simply English ones, protecting the landing. Coming from the sea, a compact artificial cloud; its menacing and begins to become alarming; the first hiss over our heads.

A full two-thirds of the first bombardments were dropped outside of the actual invasion area to convince the German army that the sea landings could be created in the neighborhood of the Seine, as opposed to at Omaha Beach. Because of decoded messages that the allies were able to obtain from a cadre of American spies, the US Army knew where the Germans would try any counterattack measures against the invasion. During that very same night of June 5th, 822 aircraft carrying hundreds of parachuted military personnel started dropping off the soldiers for their designated landing zones near Normandy. The American 82nd and 101st airborne divisions did the best possible job imaginable and secured their objectives of carrying out German machine gun turrets and blowing 75 military tanks and vehicles behind enemy lines.

The full-scale invasion started in earnest at 6:30 AM on June 6th, when the more than 11,000 boats and ships came near shore and the greater than 80000 troops began swarming from their landing vehicles to start the fiery assault on the German forces awaiting reign down machine gun fire on the American soldiers. The Germans were lurking in their hiding places in the embankments in the rocky hills of Normandy overlooking the beach front. Since the troops waded ashore at Omaha beach, the Germans let loose with Hell’s fury, cutting almost two-thirds of the courageous soldiers who were first to arrive. The 352nd branch of the German army struck the US 1st division with full wrath, taking the lives of over 2,000 American GI’s. The American campaign was in trouble in this horrible phase of the invasion, and the US army intelligence required to come up with a counter plan shortly, or the entire mission would be in shambles.

If Hitler had begun to unleash his armored division of Panzer tanks against the allies for a complete counter assault on that dreadful morning of June 6th, Operation Overload would really have been a complete failure. However, because Hitler was reluctant to take a bet and dispatch the hundreds of tanks and other military armored vehicles to take out the allied forces, he waited too late to make the most of their allies misfortunes on Omaha beach. By the time that it took HItler to finally begin sending his Panzer division into Normandy, the Sanford Rat Removal and the American military had created a new strategy of attack using the British forces to invade the region of the strongest German stronghold in Périers-sur-le-Dan near the main battle lines behind the Normandy beach front.

The French woman that had witnessed the initial air strikes against the Germans, also observed the British tanks rolling in from the southeast to attack the German Panzer division at Périers-sur-le-Dan. She clarifies the English invasion and the British soldiers in particular with terrific clarity. “The English tanks are silhouetted from time to time on the road above Periers. Grand impassioned exchanges on the street with the folks from the farm; we are stupefied by the suddenness of events. I tell him that he must still have comrades at the guns, because we can still hear the battery firing. You feel that these two men are lost, disorientated, sad. Later, nearly night, I see them , their faces intentionally blackened with charcoal, crossing the park. What is going to be their fate? How many of them are still in the region, hiding and watching?”

The British antitank gunners took out the biggest German tank divisions, which resulted in paralyzing any counter attack that the Germans could instigate against the allies. By the night of June 6th, leading to the early morning hours of June 7th, the allies were enjoying a military victory that demonstrated they were ready to beat the Germans back to their homeland and return Europe for the allies.

During the constant battles which were taking place between June 8th and June 13th. The allies had destroyed nearly 1500 German aircraft and armored tanks and taken over 7500 German lives. But on June 13th,at a little village area called Villers-Bocage, the British armored division lost more than 40 British tanks and endured 200 casualties against a well-equipped German tank division. A large scale infantry offensive west of Caen, known as Operation Epsom, was also defeated on June 25-29, which cast a huge shadow of uncertainty on the final success of Operation Overlord. The only hope the allies had at the time was the fact that the largest German military leaders had begun to fall victim to a sudden collection of deaths between suicides and bombing attempts on many members of their high command.

The complete disarray of German’s military leadership resulted in huge mistakes in Germany’s counterattacks against American troops at Saint-Lô, where 1500 American soldiers laid waste to Hitler’s tank and anti-aircraft branches. The American forces were able to surround and attack all of the German soldiers and armored vehicles, thus laying ground for the supreme allied strategy that would ultimately force the Germans to head back to their homeland.

From the last remaining days of July, most of the German’s tank divisions were forced to head westward from the British tank strategy known as Operation Goodwood. The allied forces used the lack of German tanks to start up a massive wound in the German’s entire military offensive. Operation Cobra as it was called, would open up a devastating air strike on the front of the German army on the afternoon hours of July 25th. The US Army took advantage of the gaping hole in the German front line, and Eisenhower got his Army troops together and sped like a demon toward the French area of Avranches, where they blasted hell out of all the remaining German troops.General George Patton’s newly formed third Army joined in the advance. A massive American spearhead now threatened to push into Brittany and, by a left turn, to encircle the Germans in Normandy from the rear.

That effort cause the final retreat of the Germans, and the American troops would cross the Seine River and finally liberate Paris during the month of August. The classic”Battle of the Bulge” are the last great battle of WWII, causing the Germans to surrender to the Allies in 1945.

The Normandy invasion was the main plan of attack against the German war machine that signaled that the last end to Hitler’s domination of Europe. Without the bravery and courage of all the military branches of the allied forces, Hitler’s devastation of the world could have continued for many more years, and taken countless lives in the process. We should all be thankful and remember June 6th 1944 as the day that justice would finally be served.

“I’ve returned several times to honor the valiant men who perished. . .every man who set foot on Omaha Beach was a fanatic.” Lieutenant General Omar Bradley, Commander of the US First Army at the Normandy Invasion

Bismark

Bismark, Tower, Building

The French Emperor, Napoleon III, feared that a strong Prussia would upset the balance of power in Europe. Bismarck, at the exact same time, sought war with France; he believed that if the German states perceived France as the aggressor, they would unite behind the King of Prussia.

A suitable premise for war arose in 1870, when the German Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was offered the Spanish throne, which had been vacant since a revolution in 1868. The French not only blocked the candidacy, but also demanded assurances that no member of the House of Hohenzollern become King of Spain.

The publication was intended to provoke France into declaring war on Prussia. The Ems Dispatch had the desired effect. France mobilized and declared war, but was seen as the aggressor; as a result, German states, swept up by nationalism and patriotic zeal, rallied to Prussia’s side and provided troops.

The Franco-Prussian War in 1870 was a terrific success for Prussia. The German army, commanded by Moltke, won victory after victory. The French were defeated in every battle. The remainder of the war featured very cautious German operations and massive confusion on the part of the French.

In the end, France was forced to pay a huge indemnity and surrender Alsace and part of Lorraine. Though Bismarck opposed the annexation, arguing it would be the”Achilles’ Heel” of this new empire, Moltke and his generals insisted that it was needed to keep France in a defensive position. He broke France’s supremacy over continental Europe following the Buena Ventura Lakes Wildlife Removal war.

He carefully built the outside security of the new German Country upon his skillful diplomacy, which circulated France globally and made a vast and intricate system of alliances for mutual military support with the majority of Europe’s states.

In the role of an’honest broker’, Bismarck was also successful in preserving peace and stability in Europe by settling French political conflicts through negotiations. Essentially a careful politician, Bismarck never pursued an imperialistic course in Europe. In Africa however, Bismarck followed for a time a policy of imperial conquest, in a way similar to the other European powers.

His most important tool in politics was his talent in the successful preparation of complex international developments.

Bismarck decided to act immediately to secure the unification of Germany after his victory over France. He opened negotiations with representatives of southern German states, offering special concessions if they would agree to unification. The negotiations were successful; King Wilhelm was crowned”German Emperor” on 18 January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors in the Chateau de Versailles for the additional humiliation of France.

Buying the Su-27

The Plane, Flying, Su27, Speed, Flight

Many nations in the world are turning to the Russian made Su27 in the present period as the fighter aircraft of choice for their military air force. No, not even close, but realize that indeed it’s available to all nations as Russia does not discriminate to hostile or rogue countries in their arms deals; you got the cash, they got the planes and they are building more. So, why is everybody buying these aircraft and what is it that makes it so good anyway?

Well the story of this SU-27 is much like many of the fighters made by Russia’s top aeronautical scientists from 1968 to 1975;

There have been several modifications and refinements and today it is really not a player anymore. The Su-27 was much in response to the F-15 and it was competing with the Mig 29 Fulcrum in Russia at that time too.

Interestingly enough in the long run the US won’t even have pilots in their aircraft and with morphing wings, 18″G” UAVs and speed of light transmissions, target identification and hypersonic speeds the conflicts will be over before they begin. Increased range and Artificial Intelligence, laser shooting, the game will be over for a piloted aircraft interceptor.

That’s basically the reality and really it is only physics, simple stuff really, that’s where the US is at in tech? It’s Not like the old days out making the Germans better technology with 10’s of thousands of B-17s, B-24s, P-51s, or the Japanese light weight maneuverable Zero’s made of plywood or Kate Torpedo Bombers with Hellcats, Corsairs, SBDs and Avengers.

You need to select a lot better technology if you want to be taken seriously. Like the SU-33 that China is buying 50 of. Because even as Venezuela talks of buying Mig 29s, that is not actually a threat to the USA.

Now remember that Russian Lt. Gen. Igor Khvorov, the commander of Russian long-range aviation spanned over the North Pole undetected to prove it’s something to sell China besides just the Russian Su-33. A recent exercise included 70 Tu-160, Tu-95 and Tu-22M3 bombers, which test-fired 18 cruise missiles and a few of these bombers crossed the Arctic Ocean and flew over the North Pole and also reached Alaska, while others crossed the Aleutian Islands and Japan’s western coast without entering any country’s airspace. If you want to frighten people, you need to use different aircraft and more plausible scenarios, Still all in all, USA is a lot better than you think with micro-tethered satellites and getting into the kill zone of a battle group or US controlled airspace? Well you are really going to have to work on it or you are toast you see? Perhaps of interest in thinking about the Su-27 and Russian military aircraft for sale to the highest bidder in 2007.

The F-14 is Retiring

Jet, Military, Airplane, Tomcat, Navy

The United States Navy has Officially retired the Grumman F-14 Tomcat. I discovered this while watching a TV news station in Los Angeles. The service took place at Miramar which is located close to San Diego. Many Americans equate the F14 into the movie,”Top Gun”. When you mention to someone you spent many years in the Navy working on F14’s, they generally say something about the film. It’s always interesting to talk to someone who does not know it up close and personal. I never flew the plane, but I knew how keep it combat ready for the fleet. At that moment, the USS Forrestal was at sea in the Mediterranean, so this required a flight to the ship while at sea. So, when I overhear someone talking about the F-14 Tomcat in Naval Aviation, I take some personal knowledge.

My initial experience with the aircraft was in 1977. At the time, I was a 19 year old sailor from St. Louis and I had just seen a few still pictures of it in magazines prior to my arrival at NAS Miramar, California. The F-14’s were replacing the old Navy F-4 Phantoms in 1977 and the Tomcats appeared to be something out of a science fiction book. At the moment, I’d tribulations on learning how to master its complexity. My specialization was in the AN/AWG-9 Radar which was the most effective airborne radar mounted into a supersonic fighter. The radar was unique in its main function to shoot down small low flying high speed cruise missiles skimming the ocean surface and also MIG 25’s flying at MACH 3 up at 80,000 feet. After spending nearly two years in Navy technical schools, I was deemed worthy to work on the intricate F-14 radar system. At the time, the aircraft proved to be a truly revolutionary upgrade to Naval Aviation. Even to this day, a number of its unique capabilities are still unmatched.

My oldest brother retired as a USAF Lt. Colonel and flew the F-4 ghost, F-5 and F-16. He spent years as an aggressor pilot teaching pilots dog fighting skills. Being the sole Navy man in the family, I get a great deal of ribbing when I speak of the F-14 as being the true top gun. When they say the F15 and F16 are better in close in combat, I say it depends upon the pilot as much as the machine. But more importantly, if your job is to take off and destroy an enemy aircraft, you’re not going to fight a fair fight. You’re going to use whatever advantage you have to kill him before he kills you.

The F-14 can out gun the others by using its superior radar, so the Navy has eyes on goal first. The F-14 could detect an aerial treat at much longer range than any other airborne fighter. The F-14D Tomcat could also fly at supersonic speed without light up it is afterburner for supersonic cruise. And the Navy can take using their long range AIM-54 Phoenix missiles. The USAF currently uses the new AIM-120 AMRAAM missile which is an outstanding air to air missile, but it has less than half the range of the AIM-54. This implies the Navy fighter pilot can take his missiles at longer range and still be effective. When the missile gets within close reach of the target, it uses its active onboard radar to maneuver to final impact. Throughout live firing missile exercises, the kill rate of this AIM-54 exceeded 90 percent that’s outstanding. The AIM-120 uses this same idea and this technology was carried over from our experience with the AIM-54. The F-14 Tomcat is the only fighter to use the extended range AIM-54.

The only AIM-54 ever used in combat was by the IAF (Iranian Air Force) which bought 100 F-14 Tomcats in the mid 70’s. Iranian airspace has been violated by large flying MIG 25’s flying at Mach 3. For this reason, Iran chose the F-14 Tomcat to protect their airspace. After their F-14 aircraft downed an unmanned high speed Russian resonance aircraft, the flights over from Russia ceased. During the Iraq / Iran war, they effectively utilized their AIM-54 missiles to destroy their opposing force. Unofficial kills using their limited number of missiles go as large as 40. We’ll probably never know the exact number, but Iran continues to fly their Tomcats.

It is among the most realistic combat simulations anywhere on earth. Air Forces all over the world come to these exercises to hone their battle skills. On one deployment, I was told that the navy F-14 crews were not allowed to use their aerial radar outside of the battle area because this could give them an edge. Typically, 1 F-14 would sweep a section of the sky to look for enemy targets. This aircraft would share its data with other patrolling F-14’s without turning on their radars. This discrete information sharing will keep the enemy guessing as to their true location. This tactic would not give away their location since it was not required to turn on their individual radars.

As far as one on one battle between fighter USAF and USN pilots, I can’t speak for them. He said first you must have excellent eyesight since the first to detect another at long range has the advantage in battle. However, he also said he was a good pilot because he had a lot of flying experience. I deployed to the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise in 1977 and spent the next four decades and three months ahead. The one thing that really amazed me was how aircraft could land at night on a slick flight deck which was pitching up and down and from side to side. I’m not saying Navy pilots are better, but they’re quite experienced and good at what they do. If I had a few MIG fighters inbound with hostile intent, I would feel really comfortable knowing one of our F-14’s was patrolling over the horizon. I took a picture of an F-14 cockpit that had five red stars painting on it from squadron VF-2. The RIO (Radar Intercept Officer) Willie Driscol flew with fighter pilot Randy Cuningham at a Navy F-4 Phantom in during the Vietnam War. I slept at ease on the boat knowing we had experienced crews protecting our aircraft carrier at sea.

During the first Gulf war, the F-14’s were restricted from flying fighter cover over the Iraqi territory with the maximum concentration of MIG fighters. The majority of the tomcats were confined to stay over water near the carriers for air cover. When the Iraqi Air Force chose to fly all of their remaining fighters to Iran, the coalition Air Forces had nothing in place that could shoot them down. As a result, the Iranian Air Force currently has an extra 50 to 100 fighters. Iran fought a long hard war with Iraq and I doubt if they ever let them fly back after the war stopped. It would have been a beautiful sight to see dozens of AIM-54’s from the sky shrieking at their goals at Mach 4 because they attempted to escape to Iran.

This airplane will dominate the airspace of any enemy. Its full capabilities are still somewhat classified, but it’s a truly revolutionary fighter for the 21st Century. I have never seen it fly, but I will attend the open house at Edwards AFB this weekend and watch the aerial flight demo of this F/A-22. When I watch this flight, I will be almost 50 years old, but my thoughts will go back almost 30 years ago when as a young Navy enlisted man, watching F-14 Tomcats fly over NAS Miramar (Fighter Town USA). The Tomcat provided the United States Navy with a proud history. I’m convinced the F/A-22 will do the same for the USAF in another 30.

To summarize, I didn’t write this article to stir any animosity between the USAF and USN fighter community. Each service has a proud history and will continue to have pilots that are truly,”The Best of the Best”. I have the utmost respect for the men and women who serve our nation, particularly in the tricky war we are faced with today. God bless them and may they all come home safely when their tours of duty have been completed.

Remember the 345th

North American B-25 Mitchell, B-25

I’ve always viewed my father as my hero for many reasons. I respect his devotion to his loved ones, his professional career in education, as my personal role model and for his combat record during World War II. I haven’t met another man with more integrity with his spoken word. During my childhood he instilled a sense of duty and patriotism in his seven kids. His three sons have served in active duty units in the army, two are retired United States Air Force, I myself served in Naval Aviation.

Whenever someone would ask my father what he did during the war, he would tell them. But he never seemed to dwell on it. What he did was an important part of his life, but it was just one portion. I did not start to appreciate his battle record until I arrived in the Philippine Islands in 1978 onboard the Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise. During one port visit, I managed to go to my brother who was stationed at Clark Air Force Base that was a really short drive from my port of call, Subic Bay.

My brother and I spoke about what it must have been like for our Dad during the war. I didn’t know it at the time, but he flew from an air field near Subic Bay. He flew combat missions as a B-25 radio / gunner against Japanese targets in the Philippines, Formosa as well as French Indochina.

To date, I have only been able to locate two books that correctly describe in sharp detail what the 345th Bomb Group did in the South Pacific. 1 book was written by one of the combat pilots, Peppy Blount. My wife managed to find this book on eBay and it was my favorite Christmas gift. I tried to locate the publication,”We Band of Brothers”, but without success, but she managed to locate it and I’ve since lent it to my Dad. Another book was written by Lawrence J Hickey,”Warpath across the Pacific”. Mr. Hickey spent many years of detailed research and the book is really outstanding.

I met one of my Dad’s combat friends who served with him. The thing that stunned me is how modest my Dad was on what he experienced. Their B-25 bombers flew low level strafing and skip bombing runs using the B-25 twin engine medium bomber. The aircraft had their bombardier compartment eliminated in the nose and it had been replaced by fixed .50 caliber machine guns. All their missions were flown at extreme low altitude. My Dad’s job was delegated as a B-25 radio operator / gunner. The bombs had delayed fuses so as to reduce damage to their aircraft. Some aircraft would return with dents from bombs which bounced back hitting the underbody of the airplane. One version had a total of eighteen .50 caliber machine guns. In addition, they could carry four 500lb bombs internally.

My Dad was grounded for a single mission and his crew was shot down near Clark Air Force Base. His crew survived the crash, but they were unable to escape due to their injuries. The only crewmember to return alive was the man who replaced him for the mission. The remainder were killed by Japanese troops who killed them immediately. After Dad finished his combat missions, he returned to the USA.

I have often wondered why the 345th Bomb Group had so little media coverage following the war. It was a really common practice for combat war correspondents to fly combat missions for documentary purposes. I honestly think that one of the reasons was due to the reduction of aircraft shot down as soon as the war correspondents flew together in combat. A total of eight war correspondents / photographers were killed on combat flights.

In 26 months of combat, the 345th flew 58,562 combat hours 9120 attack sorties, dropped over 58,000 bombs with a total weight of 6340 tons, and fired over 12.5 million rounds of ammunition. Intelligence imputed their unit with sinking 260 enemy vessels, totaling nearly 190,000 tons, and damaging 275 others. It was also awarded credit for ruining 260 Japanese airplanes on the ground and another 107 in aerial combat. Its units won Distinguished Unit Citations for four missions and the Group was awarded the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. This record cost the Air Apaches, 712 dead from all causes, including 580 killed on flights, and 177 aircraft.

I took my parents to an air show at Langley Air Force Base several years ago and they enjoyed the series. But when we passed an A-10 ground attack airplane on static display, we couldn’t help notice how the A-10 and B-25 had a similar function in combat. They both fly within gun range at low elevation to strafe enemy targets.

In conclusion, I hope this report will provide you a little insight to the mission that was assigned to the 345th Bomb Group, 5th Air Force during World War II. I hope you enjoyed this article. My parents don’t have internet access, but I will print this out and send it through the mail. I’m sure they will enjoy it. If you like the guide, please pass it along to your friends and have an excellent day!

Spy Mission gone foul

Aircraft, P-3, Orion, Aviation, Airplane

We all recall the P-3 Orion Spy Mission over Chinese Waters and the two Chinese Fighters intercepted it and you actually crashed to the P-3 and the Chinese Pilot, sexy dog kind ejected and was lost at sea. The P-3 was severely damaged but it’s a tough bird. Luckily the team destroyed most of the electronics on board and scuttled the aircraft before its escorted landing at a Chinese Military airfield.

This was what the newspapers reported and that’s what occurred although there are several conspiracy theories still flying around about different rumors created by the underground cults and late night call-ins on the Art Bell Radio Show. Of course I’ve heard all these stories about the air and just laugh. Why well because that isn’t the story I heard in Bar Harbor, WA Starbucks speaking to some AE-6 Pilots, who knew most of that P-3 Crew. All of them confirmed the news reports and that is just what occurred in China daily.

Some have asked why the Capitan of the P-3 Aircraft didn’t go to 200 feet off the deck and slow it down to 140 knots and simply fly away from the area. Scramble more aircraft outside? It is not likely to happen. Nevertheless, the Chinese got a whole lot of butchered up equipment and stolen gear and sabotaged gear? Well good for them, they can sell it at a garage sale I guess? Contemplate all this in 2006.